Grapes

Nebbiolo: In-Depth Grape Varietal Profile

Nebbiolo: In-Depth Grape Varietal Profile

Nebbiolo boasts an allure that has made it the darling of Italian winemakers and the fascination of wine connoisseurs worldwide. The name of this grape is derived from "nebbia," the Italian word for fog, but within that fog lies a world of complexity and character that, once unveiled, will forever captivate your palate and imagination.

We'll delve into the keys to understanding Nebbiolo grapes. You'll discover the unique terroirs, the artistry of winemaking, and the profound impact of Nebbiolo on wines such as Barolo and Barbaresco, celebrated for their elegance, power, and longevity.

Whether you're a seasoned oenophile or just beginning your wine journey, this Nebbiolo grape in-depth guide promises to reveal the secrets of Nebbiolo, helping you appreciate its nuances, savour its flavours, and choose the perfect bottle to accompany your most memorable moments. So, let's raise our glasses and dive into the world of Nebbiolo—where every sip is an invitation to experience the essence of Italy's finest wines.

What is the Nebbiolo Grape?

Originating in the picturesque hills of Piemonte (Piedmont) in northwestern Italy, Nebbiolo is an ancient and noble late-ripening grape that forms the backbone of some of Italy's most cherished wines.

Translated from French, Piedmont stands for "foot of the mountain" (pied = foot and mont = mount or hill) due to its location in the foothills of the Italian Alps. Although landlocked, Piedmont receives maritime influences from the Ligurian Sea, lying south of the region, resulting in a mixed climate and hence the famed nebbia (fog) rolling in from the sea and settling in the foothills of Piemonte.

Much like Pinot Noir, Nebbiolo can be a difficult variety to grow. Nebbiolo thrives in very specific hillside locations within the Piedmont region. Nebbiolo is rarely grown anywhere else in Italy. This variety ripens later than most other varieties and can struggle when it does. The best Nebbiolo sites can be found on hillsides with clay and silt-based soils, making the Sierra Foothills in California a fantastic location for Nebbiolo outside of Italy.

The grape clusters bear small to medium-sized berries with thin skins, ripening late in the season, usually in October. Nebbiolo is renowned for its delicate skin and notable acidity.

A defining trait of Nebbiolo is its high tannins. This abundance of tannins imparts Nebbiolos with remarkable structure and an innate ability to age gracefully. The wines showcase robust and austere characteristics in their youth, featuring grippy tannins that soften and gain a velvety tannin texture with age. Understanding this is key to appreciating the particular Nebbiolo taste.

While Nebbiolo has found success in various Italian regions, including Lombardy and the Valtellina region, its heart remains in its native Piedmont. Here, Nebbiolo thrives in distinctive terroirs and microclimates, contributing significantly to the grape's diverse expressions and solidifying its status as a cornerstone of Italian winemaking.

Fun Facts about Nebbiolo

While Nebbiolo enjoys immense popularity in Italy, it hasn't gained the global recognition of varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon or Pinot Noir. Yet, delving into Nebbiolo reveals fascinating facts underscoring the significance of this grape.

  1. Synonyms: Nebbiolo goes by various names in different regions. In Valtellina, it's known as "Chiavennasca". In other parts of Italy, the variety is sometimes referred to as Spanna, while in Croatia, the varietals are known as Bruneta, Melasca, Nebiolo, Prunena, and Prunent.
  2. Ripeness: Despite the fact that Nebbiolo flowers early and contrary to the translation of the origin of its name (nebbia = fog), the grape needs a lot of sun to develop properly and achieve phenolic ripeness.
  3. Age: Nebbiolo is a very old grape. Its first mentions date back to the 13th century!
  4. Geography: Despite being a key variety for Italian viticulture, it is not as widely cultivated in other parts of the world. For this reason, it is still considered a hidden Italian gem. Nebbiolo represents 10% of the cultivated area in Piemonte, but nevertheless, it is more cultivated there than in the rest of the world!
  5. Aroma and Flavour Profile: Nebbiolo is a very complex wine grape. Among its tasting notes, we can mention red fruits, dried fruits, game meat, or even earthy notes that may remind you of mushrooms.
  6. Colour: Nebbiolo wines evolve in colour significantly over time. Young Nebbiolo wines boast a vibrant, rich color, but this colour fades away quickly. Scientifically, Nebbiolo's anthocyanins, which are water-soluble pigments, possess limited stable colorants and include easily oxidized components like peonidin and cyanidin glycosides, leading to the wine losing its colour quickly. On the other hand, aged Nebbiolo wines, such as Barolo and Barbaresco, typically take on a brick-orange or garnet hue. Over time, the vibrant red tones of young Nebbiolo fade, giving way to these more translucent and lighter orange-tinted shades. This transformation is one of the characteristic traits of aged Nebbiolo wines.
  7. Pairings: Did you know that the Nebbiolo pairs well with a lot of food? Whether you prefer savory Chinese dishes, or Italian fare, Nebbiolo wines will take you on a journey to appreciate every bite.

Delving into the Requirements of Nebbiolo Grapes

Nebbiolo, with its complex and alluring character, is highly influenced by the environmental conditions in which it is grown. To produce exceptional Nebbiolo, winemakers carefully consider a range of viticultural factors, from climate and soils to altitude and sunlight exposure. Here, we delve into the key conditions that contribute to the successful cultivation of Nebbiolo.

Climate

  • Preferred Climates: Nebbiolo thrives in temperate continental climates and regions with distinct seasonal variations, including warm, sunny summers and cool, crisp autumns. This climatic pattern allows the grapes to ripen slowly and develop their full flavour potential. Nebbiolo is cultivated in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Portugal, the Republic of North Macedonia and the USA (California)
  • Temperature Range: The ideal cultivation temperature range is 57-61°F (14-16°C) during the growing season. These moderate temperatures contribute to the gradual ripening of Nebbiolo grapes, allowing them to develop their characteristic complexity and balance.

Soils

Nebbiolo is particularly sensitive to soil types, and different soils can impart unique characteristics to the grapes grown.

  • Tortonian and Serravallian Soils: These ancient marine sedimentary soils composed by a mix of limestone and clayey soils, and are particularly prized for Nebbiolo cultivation. They provide good drainage and minerality, allowing the grape to express its nuanced flavours.
  • Helvetian Soils: These soils are characterized by a higher clay content, which can impart more structure and depth. However, they require careful management to prevent excessive water retention.
  • Morainic Soils: Found in some parts of Piedmont, these soils are a mix of gravel, sand, and clay. They offer good drainage and are known for producing Nebbiolo wines with a distinct personality.

Rainfall and Sunlight

  • Ideal Rainfall: Nebbiolo prefers regions with moderate rainfall, typically in the range of 600 to 800 millimetres (23 to 31 inches) annually. This ensures that the vines receive adequate moisture without excessive dilution of flavours.
  • Sunlight: Nebbiolo benefits from ample sunlight during the growing season. South-facing slopes and well-exposed vineyards allow the grapes to receive sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis and ripening. However, the cooling effect of evening breezes in many Nebbiolo regions helps preserve acidity and balance.

Altitude

  • Influence of Altitude: Altitude plays a crucial role in Nebbiolo's cultivation. Many Nebbiolo vineyards are situated at higher elevations, often between 300 to 500 meters (1,000 to 1,640 feet) above sea level. These higher altitudes provide cooler temperatures, contributing to Nebbiolo's characteristic acidity and aromatic complexity.
grape-profiles-cards-nebbiolo

Nebbiolo's Terroir Influence and Prestigious Appellations

The concept of terroir, which encompasses the unique combination of soil, climate, and topography specific to a region, plays a central role in shaping Nebbiolo wines' organoleptic and flavour characteristics. This noble grape variety is grown in several renowned appellations within Italy, each offering its distinctive terroir and contributing to the diverse expressions of Nebbiolo.

Langhe DOC: Nebbiolo's Diverse Playground

The Langhe region, nestled in the picturesque hills of Piedmont in northwestern Italy, serves as a broad and encompassing appellation that includes some of the most esteemed Nebbiolo vineyards. This expansive area, known for its breathtaking landscapes and rich winemaking traditions, offers Nebbiolo a diverse playground to thrive.

  • Terroir Influence:  The soils of the Langhe region encompass a spectrum of geological diversity. From the calcareous marl and clay-based soils of Barolo and La Morra, which contribute to wines of power and finesse, to the sandy and limestone-rich soils of Monforte d'Alba, which yield wines of structure and complexity, each subzone imprints its identity on the grapes it nurtures. 

On the other hand, Langhe's climate offers warm summers and cool, crisp autumns—a classic Mediterranean climate with a continental influence. This climatic pattern allows Nebbiolo grapes to ripen slowly, balancing acidity and sugars while developing the grape's full flavour potential.

  • Langhe: Langhe wines are often considered approachable expressions, offering an entry point to the world of Nebbiolo. They provide a preview of the grape's core characteristics—high acidity, complex aromatics, and bright red fruit flavours—while showcasing the influence of their specific terroirs. Langhe are generally more accessible in their youth than the more structured Barolo and Barbaresco wines, making them an excellent introduction to the Nebbiolo grape.
Nebbiolo d'Alba DOC: A Showcase of Terroir

Nebbiolo d'Alba, situated in Piedmont's Roero and Langhe regions, is a captivating showcase of the terroir's influence on Nebbiolo. This DOC, known for producing expressive and approachable wines, offers a unique lens through which to explore the grape's diversity.

  • Terroir Influence: The terroir of Nebbiolo d'Alba is marked by a mix of marl, limestone, and sandy deposits. These soils, similar to those found in parts of Barolo and Barbaresco, shape the characteristics of Nebbiolo d'Alba wines. The marl contributes to minerality, while the limestone imparts finesse and structure. Sandy elements promote good drainage, allowing the vines to thrive without excessive water retention. Nebbiolo d'Alba's climate is slightly warmer than some other Nebbiolo-producing regions in Piedmont. This leads to wines with softer tannins and a more approachable nature.
  • Nebbiolo d'Alba Wines: Nebbiolo d'Alba wines are appreciated for their accessibility in their youth while retaining the essence of Nebbiolo's core traits. These wines offer a delightful introduction to Nebbiolo, focusing on red berry fruit, floral notes, and a gentle tannic structure. While they may not possess the same aging potential as their Barolo and Barbaresco counterparts, Nebbiolo d'Alba wines provide an excellent opportunity to explore the grape's versatility across different terroirs.
Barolo DOCG: The Majestic King of Wines

Barolo, often referred to as the "King of Wines," is one of Italy's most prestigious and iconic Nebbiolo appellations. Situated within the Piedmont region, Barolo's terroir boasts a unique combination of soil, climate, and winemaking traditions that elevate Nebbiolo to unparalleled heights.

  • Terroir Influence: The heart of Barolo lies in its Tortonian and Serravallian soils, characterized by calcareous marl and clay. This geological composition imparts Barolo with its signature traits of powerful tannins, intricate aromas, and rich flavours. The high calcium and magnesium content in the soil contributes to the grape's vitality and the wine's aging potential. The climate in Barolo follows a continental pattern with warm summers and cool autumns.
  • Barolo Wines: Barolo wines are renowned for their longevity and ability to evolve over decades. They are characterized by a captivating interplay of flavours, including cherry, rose petal, tar, and truffle notes. In their youth, Barolo wines often display robust and austere characteristics, featuring a gripping texture that softens and gains a velvety quality with age. The marriage of powerful tannins and Nebbiolo's enchanting aromatics is what makes Barolo the epitome of Nebbiolo wines.
Barbaresco DOCG: Elegance in a Glass

Adjacent to Barolo, the Barbaresco DOCG represents another pinnacle of Nebbiolo excellence. This appellation, known for its elegance and finesse, presents Nebbiolo wines that are often more approachable in their youth compared to Barolo.

  • Terroir Influence: Barbaresco's terroir features a mix of marl, limestone, and sandstone soils, which differ slightly from the clay-rich soils of Barolo. This unique geological composition contributes to wines with softer tannins and a more delicate structure. The lower altitude and slightly warmer microclimate in Barbaresco compared to Barolo result in wines that are more approachable at an earlier stage of their development.
  • Barbaresco Wines: Barbaresco wines are celebrated for their elegance, showcasing vibrant red fruit flavours, floral aromas, and characteristic finesse. While they possess the potential to age and evolve gracefully, Barbaresco wines often display a more approachable and harmonious nature in their youth compared to Barolo. They offer a captivating expression of Nebbiolo's core attributes while reflecting the distinct influence of the region's terroir.
Gattinara DOCG: The Elegance of Volcanic Soils

The Gattinara DOCG, located in the northern part of Piedmont, offers a distinct terroir influenced by volcanic soils. This unique geological composition sets Gattinara Nebbiolos apart and results in wines with pronounced minerality and spice.

  • Terroir Influence: Gattinara's soils are influenced by ancient volcanic activity, particularly the presence of porphyry rocks. These volcanic soils impart Gattinara Nebbiolos with a distinct mineral character, often including flint and graphite notes. The region's cooler climate in Piedmont contributes to wines with good acidity and an elegant structure due to its northern location.
  • Gattinara Wines: Gattinara wines are known for their pronounced minerality and spicy notes, which complement the Nebbiolo grape's classic characteristics of red fruit and floral aromatics. These wines often display a firm tannic structure that gradually softens with age, unveiling a harmonious and elegant personality. Gattinara is a testament to the diversity of terroirs within the Nebbiolo universe and offers a unique expression of the grape's potential.
Carema DOC: Alpine Nebbiolo Elegance

In the foothills of the Italian Alps, the Carema DOC showcases Nebbiolo's adaptability to high-altitude terroirs. Carema Nebbiolos are celebrated for their elegance, finesse, and unique character.

  • Terroir Influence: Carema's terraced vineyards are planted on schist-based soils, and the region's altitude varies between 350 to 600 meters (1,150 to 1,970 feet) above sea level. With their excellent drainage properties, the schist soils promote the development of Nebbiolo with bright acidity, floral aromatics, and a distinct mineral character. Cool temperatures and significant diurnal temperature variations characterize the alpine climate in Carema.
  • Carema Wines: Carema Nebbiolos are appreciated for their finesse and precision. They often exhibit notes of red berries, violets, and an alluring minerality that sets them apart. While they may not possess the same power and structure as their counterparts in Barolo and Barbaresco, Carema wines are beloved for their elegance and the way they capture the essence of Nebbiolo's aromatic complexity.

Influence of Terroir on Nebbiolo: A Symphony of Diversity

The influence of terroir on Nebbiolo is akin to a symphony of diversity, where the specific soil types, microclimates, and elevations of each appellation harmoniously shape the grape's inherent attributes. This profound interaction between Nebbiolo and its terroir results in wines that are distinct, captivating, and emblematic of their origins.

The geological diversity of soils, from calcareous marl to volcanic porphyry, imparts unique mineral and structural elements to the wines. While Nebbiolo's core characteristics, such as high acidity, complex aromatics, and a captivating interplay of flavours, remain consistent, the specific expressions of these traits.

Sustainability: Nurturing Nature and Flavour

As conscientious consumers, it's important to explore the sustainability practices in producing Nebbiolo wines, ensuring that the cherished grape thrives in harmony with the environment. Here, we delve into three essential sustainability aspects related to Nebbiolo: water usage, soil management, and sustainable certifications.

Water Usage

In the world of Nebbiolo, responsible water usage is a fundamental component of sustainable winemaking. Many Nebbiolo vineyards are situated in regions where water resources can be scarce or seasonal. Sustainable practices include:

  • Drip Irrigation: Some wineries employ drip irrigation systems to deliver water directly to the vines' roots. This precise method ensures efficient water use, preventing over-irrigation and conserving this precious resource.
  • Rainwater Harvesting: Some wineries harness rainwater for irrigation and other vineyard needs. This eco-friendly approach reduces reliance on groundwater and minimizes the carbon footprint associated with pumping water.

Soil Usage

Sustainability extends to soil care, recognizing that healthy soils are the foundation of exceptional wines. Practices that promote soil health include:

  • Cover Cropping: Planting cover crops between vine rows helps prevent soil erosion, enhances soil structure, and encourages biodiversity. It also reduces the need for synthetic herbicides.
  • Organic Farming: Many producers embrace organic farming, abstaining from synthetic chemicals and fertilizers. Organic practices promote soil vitality and preserve the delicate balance of microorganisms within the vineyard ecosystem.

Sustainable Certifications

Consumers keen on supporting sustainability in Nebbiolo production can look for wineries with recognized sustainable certifications. These certifications attest to a commitment to environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and economic viability. Some notable certifications include:

  • Organic Certification: Wineries that meet rigorous organic standards refrain from synthetic chemicals, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and artificial additives. This certification demonstrates a dedication to organic farming practices that benefit both the environment and consumers seeking chemical-free wines.
  • Biodynamic Certification: Biodynamic wineries go beyond organic practices, embracing a holistic approach that aligns vineyard activities with lunar cycles and natural rhythms. Biodynamic farming seeks to enhance the overall vitality of the vineyard ecosystem.
  • Sustainable Wine Certifications: Various regional and international organizations offer sustainability certifications tailored to vineyard practices. These certifications encompass sustainable farming, energy efficiency, and responsible water management.

By opting for sustainable certifications, consumers can actively support wineries committed to environmentally sound practices while enjoying wines of the highest quality.

Which are the best Nebbiolo wines?

Nebbiolo wines vary so much based on variety of factors that the best way to get to know these special wines is to taste as many wines made from this noble grape as possible.

Young Nebbiolos boast a vibrant hue, but this colour fades away quickly. Scientifically, Nebbiolo's anthocyanins, which are water-soluble pigments, possess limited stable colorants and include easily oxidized components like peonidin and cyanidin glycosides, leading to the wine losing its colour quickly. Aged Nebbiolos typically take on a brick-orange or garnet hue. Over time, the vibrant red tones of young Nebbiolo fade, giving way to these more translucent and lighter orange-tinted shades. This transformation is one of the characteristic traits of aged Nebbiolo wines.

And for that, we bring you three of the best biodynamic examples you will find in Italy, which will surely surprise you with every sip. But first, let's talk about one of the fundamental pillars for these wines to be what they are: their producers, Alberto Voerzio and Enrico Rivetto. They bet every day for a production model that allows them to create some of the country's premier wines and generate unique experiences on the palate and is also environmentally friendly. 

Alberto Voerzio is a producer who made a key decision for the characteristics of his wines: he cultivates the vineyards in small plots in La Morra, a village located in Barolo, which allows him to have a periodic and closer control of all the processes that his wines go through. This winemaker practices biodynamic viticulture, which is key when discussing sustainable viticulture. For this reason, one of the main characteristics of his wines is the fermentation based on wild yeasts.  

On the other hand, Enrico Rivetto's wines are becoming increasingly popular in Barolo, not only because he is the first Demeter-certified producer in the region but also because of his great dedication to the implementation of polycultures next to his vineyards. This allows not only to fight the main pests of the grapes naturally but also to slow down the wear and tear of the soil.  

Allow us to present two wines from the Langhe Nebbiolo DOC: Alberto Verzio's wine, crafted solely from Nebbiolo, and Enrico Rivetto's blend of Nebbiolo and Barbera grapes. Additionally, we have the Vigna Lirano Nebbiolo Amphora, a creation of Enrico Rivetto under the Nebbiolo d'Alba DOC appellation. 

  • Langhe Nebbiolo DOC: This biodynamic masterpiece from Alberto Voerzio exemplifies the essence of Nebbiolo. Sourced from the esteemed La Morra and Barolo regions in Piedmont, it's a pure expression of the grape, crafted with meticulous care. This Nebbiolo varietal undergoes spontaneous fermentation with indigenous yeast in temperature-controlled stainless steel. After 12 months of aging in used French oak barriques and a subsequent eight months in stainless steel, this wine is bottled unfined and unfiltered. It may develop a natural deposit as it gracefully ages, maintaining a commitment to minimal SO2 use. 
  • Langhe DOC: Rivetto's biodynamic Langhe wine is crafted with a blend of 97% Nebbiolo and 3% Barbera, showcasing the union of two noble grape varieties but also undergoing precise winemaking techniques. After maceration in steel tanks for 10-15 days, it matures for 12 months in 3000L Slavonian oak botti, followed by an additional 6 months in the bottle. The result is a wine that harmoniously blends Nebbiolo's character with Barbera's charm, revealing a captivating depth of flavour. 
  • Nebbiolo d’ Alba DOC: Rivetto's Nebbiolo d’ Alba wine is an ode to tradition and innovation. Crafted from 100% Nebbiolo, this biodynamic gem undergoes fermentation in terracotta amphorae with indigenous yeast, allowing for a long and gentle maceration process. After nine months of aging in the amphora, the wine emerges as a true testament to Nebbiolo's versatility and Rivetto's commitment to sustainable practices. It offers a unique profile that showcases the influence of the amphora on the final flavour and texture of the wine. 

Final Thoughts

Our journey through the world of Nebbiolo has revealed a rich tapestry of history, tradition, and craftsmanship. From exploring the essence of Nebbiolo grapes to understanding the meticulous techniques behind their cultivation, we've celebrated the unique characteristics that define Nebbiolo wines.

But our voyage wouldn't be complete without indulging in the sensory delight of tasting Nebbiolo wines. Three exceptional bottles have been selected to embody the spirit and diversity of Nebbiolo wine. These include Alberto Voerzio's Langhe DOC wine, showcasing minimal intervention winemaking; Enrico Rivetto's Langhe DOC Wine, harmoniously blending Nebbiolo and Barbera; and Enrico Rivetto's Nebbiolo d’Alba, an innovative expression combining tradition and sustainability in terracotta amphorae.

In these wines, we find a reflection of Nebbiolo's timeless beauty and the passion of the winemakers who craft them. They invite us to savour Nebbiolo wines' elegance, complexity, and enchantment—a journey transcending geography and time.

Whether you're a seasoned wine enthusiast or a curious novice, we encourage you to raise your glass to Nebbiolo's enduring allure and explore these recommended wines. Each bottle is an invitation to partake in a profound and delightful experience that encapsulates the very essence of Italy's wine heritage. Cheers to Nebbiolo, to tradition, and the art of winemaking!

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