39°00'0.00" N


16°30'0.00" E




about this region

Nestled in southern Italy, the Calabria wine region is a captivating tapestry of diverse landscapes and indigenous viticulture. Its Mediterranean climate, with warm summers and mild winters, fosters the growth of distinctive grape varieties. Rolling hills, mountains, and coastal plains contribute to a range of soil types, enriching the terroir. Indigenous grapes like Gaglioppo and Greco Bianco thrive here, producing wines that embody the region's character. Winemaking traditions intertwine with innovation, resulting in a spectrum of red, white, and rosé wines. Calabria's vinicultural identity is a testament to its cultural heritage, and its wines invite exploration into a flavorful journey enriched by history and nature's beauty.


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vinerra illustration

Vineyard Hectares




growing degree days

Discover Terroir

The Calabria wine region is located in the southernmost part of Italy, comprising the "toe" of the Italian peninsula. This large peninsula is situated between the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea to the east. It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina. Calabria boasts a lengthy coastline that extends for approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles). The region is bordered by the Basilicata region to the north, providing a natural land boundary.

Calabria's diverse landscape encompasses a range of geographical features, including rugged mountains, rolling hills, fertile valleys, and picturesque coastal plains. The Appennine Mountains run along the region's eastern side, while the Sila, Aspromonte, and Pollino mountain ranges dominate the interior, shaping its terrain and influencing the local climate.

The vineyards of the Calabria wine region are strategically positioned across this varied landscape, benefitting from the varying altitudes, soil types, and microclimates that contribute to the region's viticultural diversity. This geographical richness, coupled with the temperate Mediterranean climate, provides an ideal environment for cultivating a wide array of grape varieties that yield wines unique to the Calabria region. The proximity to both the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas also plays a role in influencing local climatic conditions and fostering a rich terroir.

Calabria's geographic location has historically made it a hub for trade, cultural exchange, and agriculture, and its wines reflect this blend of tradition and innovation. As the region continues to evolve, its distinctive geographical features continue to shape the character and identity of the Calabria wine region.

Mountainous formations dominate the region. In fact, the Apennines act as a barrier to warm winds from the north. The Calabria wine region experiences a Mediterranean climate characterized by its warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Nestled in the southernmost part of the Italian peninsula, the region's climate is influenced by its proximity to the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea to the south and east.

During the summer months, Calabria enjoys long periods of sunshine and high temperatures. Average daytime temperatures often range between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit), with some inland areas experiencing even warmer conditions. The coastal regions benefit from cooling sea breezes, which help moderate the heat and create a more comfortable environment. Rainfall is minimal during the summer, contributing to the region's arid conditions and allowing for optimal grape ripening.

Winter in Calabria is relatively mild, with average temperatures ranging from 8 to 15 degrees Celsius (46 to 59 degrees Fahrenheit). The region experiences more rainfall during this season, which helps replenish water sources and sustain vegetation. Snowfall is uncommon in most areas, except for the higher elevations of the Appennine and mountain ranges, where it can be more frequent. Due to the low rainfall, it is often necessary to supplement the irrigation of the vineyards, where the Disciplinare permits.

Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by gradually warming or cooling temperatures. These periods are vital for the growth cycle of the grapevines, with spring providing the necessary conditions for bud break and flowering, while autumn allows for a gradual ripening of the grapes before harvest.

The Calabria wine region's Mediterranean climate, coupled with its diverse topography, plays a significant role in shaping the region's viticulture. While some areas are well-suited for cultivating heat-loving grape varieties, others take advantage of higher elevations and cooler conditions to produce wines with distinct character and balance. Overall, the climate of Calabria contributes to the unique terroir that defines the wines of the region.

The Calabria wine region in Italy encompasses a varied and diverse range of soils that contribute to the unique character of its wines. The region's geological history and topography have given rise to a multitude of soil types, each influencing the growth and development of grapevines in distinct ways.

Coastal areas of Calabria often feature soils that are a combination of alluvial deposits and marine sediments. These soils tend to be relatively fertile and well-draining, making them suitable for a variety of grape varieties. Inland, the landscape shifts to encompass more hilly and mountainous terrain. In these areas, soils can vary significantly, with a prevalence of limestone, marl, and clay-based soils. These soils often have good water retention properties and contribute to the mineral and structural characteristics of the wines.

The mountainous regions, such as the Sila, Aspromonte, and Pollino ranges, feature a mix of rocky and volcanic soils. Volcanic soils, in particular, are rich in nutrients and minerals, lending a distinct complexity and flavor profile to the wines produced in these areas.

Elevations play a role in soil variation as well. Higher altitudes are often characterized by cooler temperatures, which can impact soil development and structure. Over time, these factors have contributed to the diverse array of soil types found throughout the Calabria wine region.

Grape growers and winemakers in Calabria have learned to harness the unique qualities of these soils to cultivate grapevines that thrive under specific conditions. This intricate interplay between soil, climate, and grapevine has led to the creation of wines that reflect the terroir of the Calabria region, showcasing its distinctive flavours, aromas, and textures.


Several grape varieties are commonly planted, each contributing to the diverse and vibrant winemaking traditions of the area. The most planted grape varietals in Calabria, categorized by color, include:

Red Grape Varietals:
  1. Gaglioppo: This is one of the signature red grape varieties of Calabria, known for producing robust and full-bodied red wines with flavors of dark berries, spices, and often a hint of earthiness.
  2. Magliocco: Another important red grape in Calabria, Magliocco is often used to create varietal wines or blends. It contributes to wines with rich fruit flavors, moderate tannins, and a touch of rustic character.
  3. Greco Nero: While primarily used for blending, Greco Nero adds depth and color to red wines produced in Calabria. It's known for contributing dark fruit flavors and a slightly herbaceous quality.
  4. Nero d'Avola: Though more commonly associated with Sicily, Nero d'Avola is also cultivated in Calabria. It adds a dark fruit and spicy dimension to red blends.
  5. Aglianico: While Aglianico is not as commonly associated with Calabria as it is with some other Italian regions, it is cultivated to a lesser extent. Aglianico grapes can contribute to the production of red wines with notable structure, tannins, and dark fruit flavors. However, it's worth noting that Aglianico is more prominently grown in regions like Campania and Basilicata.
White Grape Varietals:
  1. Greco Bianco: Greco Bianco is a key white grape in Calabria, producing aromatic and lively white wines with notes of citrus, herbs, and sometimes floral undertones.
  2. Malvasia Bianca: Often used for both still and sweet wines, Malvasia Bianca grapes contribute to wines with aromatic profiles, showcasing floral and fruity notes.
  3. Trebbiano Toscano: This white grape variety is widely planted in Calabria and is used in the production of various wine styles, from crisp and light whites to blends.
  4. Mantonico Bianco: Mantonico Bianco is gaining recognition for its role in crafting complex and expressive white wines with layers of flavors, including citrus, tropical fruits, and herbal elements.
  5. Chardonnay: Chardonnay, being a versatile and widely grown international grape variety, has found a place in the vineyards of Calabria. It's used to produce white wines that can range from crisp and refreshing to more full-bodied and complex, depending on winemaking techniques and the specific terroir of the region.

These grape varietals, both indigenous and introduced, reflect the rich history and diverse terroir of the Calabria wine region. Winemakers utilize these varieties to produce wines that capture the essence of the region and its unique characteristics.

The most popular wines in Calabria are made with the Gaglioppo and Aglianico varieties, on the red wines side, while white wines are mainly made with Chardonnay and Greco varieties.

  • Gaglioppo: This variety is very popular in southern Italy. Although it is especially recognized for producing soft red wines under the DOC Ciró, it is also widely cultivated in Abruzzo, Marche and Umbria regions. Very good results are also obtained with this variety when vinified to obtain dry wines.
  • Aglianico: This variety stands out for its good structure and intense flavour, although it is generally necessary to let the wines age for some years. This is because young wines produced with this variety tend to develop a marked and concentrated tannin flavour.
  • Chardonnay: This variety, very popular worldwide, is highly valued in Calabria because, due to the type of climate in the region, it allows the production of wines with a ripe and tropical fruit profile, as well as low levels of acidity.
  • Greco Bianco: Finally, this grape variety is widely cultivated in Lazio, Central Italy, and Calabria. This variety allows the production of a wide range of wines, from sweet wines to wines with a drier profile.

100 - 500 m


600 - 800 mm


clay, limestone, volcanic, sandy, sedimentary

top varietal

Gaglioppo, Aglianico, Chardonnay, Greco Bianco

History of wine

In the region, the first records of vine cultivation date back to the middle of the 7th century B.C. According to legend, it is believed that Philocteteles, founder of what is now known as the region of Ciro, built a monument in the city to Apoleus Aleus, who had cured him of a snakebite by washing his wound with wine. Beyond the legend, the cult of Dionysus, god protector of the vines, spread in the region of Ciró, celebrating festivals in his honour by consuming wine from the region of Crimissa, nowadays known as Strongoli.

Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC, the Romans expanded their empire, colonizing Mediterranean territories. This caused Calabria to start importing more and more wheat, thus producing a fall in the value of wheat. For this reason, wheat cultivation became less profitable, and many farmers began cultivating vines.

Viticulture in Calabria continued to develop as more and more wine was produced and exported, reaching its apogee between the 2nd century B.C. and 1st century A.C. But during the 2nd century A.C., the decline of the Roman Empire, civil wars and tax increases, among other factors, led to the progressive abandonment of viticulture.  

It was not until the Middle Ages that viticulture was reborn in Calabria. Around the year 1000, deeds of donation, sales documents and wine-related agricultural contracts began to be drawn up. Later, around 1200, wine began to be exported throughout Europe. Thus, viticulture continued to grow in the region until 1868. That year, the arrival of phylloxera changed Calabria's wine-growing landscape. This insect, which arrived in Europe after the importation of American vines, forced Calabrian winegrowers to modify their traditional cultivation practices: instead of rooting a European vine branch and then planting it in the ground, it was necessary to use roots from American vines, resistant to phylloxera, and graft European vine branches onto them.

The first AOC of the region was granted to Ciró in 1969. A few years later, in 1975, the AOC was granted to Savuto. In 1978, the Lamezia region received DOC status, while in 1979, the same happened to Melissa and S. Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto. In 1980, the DOC Greco di Bianco was created, and then it was 14 years before the next DOC, Scavigna, was established. Two years later, in 1996, the DOC Bivongi was created and, finally, in 2011, the last DOC of Calabria so far, Terre di Cosenza, was created.